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2019 JSAE/SAE Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants International Meeting: Discussing the Direction of Powertrain Development with an Aim for Zero Emissions in 2050

From August 26 to 29, 2019, 2019 JSAE / SAE Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants International Meeting was held in Kyoto, Japan. Approximately 800 powertrain-related researchers, automobile manufacturers and parts manufacturers from all over the world, including Japan, Europe, North America, China, South Korea and the Middle East, participated in the event. Lectures and discussions were held on the future direction of powertrain research and development.

The Paris Agreement requires a significant reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 in the automotive field. To achieve this, not only local powertrain emissions (Tank to Wheel), but also viewpoint of life cycle assessment (LCA) is also important which includes CO2 created during fuel / electricity generation (Well to Wheel) and CO2 created during vehicle production and disposal / recycling (Cradle to Cradle). Based on that premise, when considering the direction of future powertrain development, it is necessary not only to use EVs, but also to improve the thermal efficiency of the engine itself, to make it hybrid, and to evolve fuels and lubricants including synthetic fuels derived from renewable energy. It was confirmed that there was almost common recognition of these issues among the participants.

The energy mix in each region of the world is diverse, and the optimal powertrain solution also varies. It is important to research and develop multiple powertrain technologies simultaneously and in accordance with a specific market and segment. Based on the energy situation of each region, considering the local production and consumption of energy, the viewpoint of CO2 reduction not only in the automobile sector but for the society as a whole, is an important key in future powertrain research and development.

Overview of 2019 JSAE/SAE Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants International Meeting

Overview of the Meeting

・2019 JSAE/SAE Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants International Meeting (P, F & L) – It was held from August 26th (Monday) to 29th (Thursday), 2019 at Kyoto Terrsa in Kyoto, Japan. – Approximately 800 powertrain-related researchers, automobile manufacturers and parts manufacturers from all over the world, including Japan, Europe, North America, China, South Korea and the Middle East, participated in the event. – It was organized by the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (JSAE) and the Society of Automotive Engineers International (SAE International). – The previous meeting SAE 2018 P, F & L was held in Heidelberg, Germany. – The next meeting SAE 2020 P, F & L will be held in Krakow, Poland, on September 22-24, 2020. ・P, F & L in Japan co-sponsored by SAE and JSAE is held once every four years. The last time it was held in 2015 at the same venue (Kyoto Terrsa) in 2015. – P, F & L started as Fuels and Lubricants Meeting by SAE. International events are held in the spring since 2000 and in the fall in the United States (integrated with the SAE World Congress in the spring since 2011). – JSAE started co-sponsoring with SAE since 2003. In recent years, the name has been changed to Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Meeting, reflecting the current technical situation. JSAE and SAE co-sponsor the event when it is held in Japan. Note: Program and speech titles appear as published in the event’s pamphlet.

Opening Remarks

・Chaired by Jiro Senda (Doshisha University), the following organizing committee representatives were on stage. – Kenji Kaita (Toyota Motor) – Prof. Bengt Johansson (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology) – Prof. Yoshihiro Suda (The University of Tokyo)

Keynote Speeches

・Keynote speeches were given by the following four speakers, moderated by Dr. Shuji Kimura (Nissan Motor). – Prof. Takeo Kikkawa (Tokyo University of Science): Energy Best Mix and Transportation – Paul Bogers (Shell Global Solutions Deutschland): Powering Progress Together – Delivering More & Cleaner Energy Solutions – Dr. Paul Miles (Sandia National Laboratories): On the Road to Zero Emissions: Potential of the IC Engine Based Powertrain – László Varró (International Energy Agency): Towards Sustainable Transport

Executive Panel Session / Panel Discussion

On the final day, the following five members reported and discussed the theme of “Technology Roadmap for Zero Emission in 2050”. – Dr. Yuichiro Fujiyama (JXTG Energy): Energy Supplier’s Challenges in Japan's Diversified Market Toward 2050 – Wolfgang Maus (WM Engineering & Consulting): Sustainable Prosperity Created by Energy and Mobility – Dr. Timothy V. Johnson (Corning): Reexamination of BEV – Toshifumi Takaoka (Toyota Motor): Toyota’s Strategy for Zero Emissions – Dr. Shuji Kimura (Nissan Motor), Nissan's Strategy for Zero Emissions

Sponsor Companies

  • Horiba
  • Denso
  • Kistler
  • Taiho Kogyo
  • ETAS
  • SwRI
  • A&D
  • Corning

Sponsor Organizations

・Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) ・Petrolium Association of Japan (PAJ) ・Japan Auto Parts Industries Association (JAPIA)

2019 P, F & L Day 1: Keynote Speeches

・On the first day, after the opening remarks, four keynote speeches were given which were summarized by Mr. Shuji Kimura (Nissan Motor). After that, the following seven speakers gave a presentation at the first Technical Workshop (TWS1) titled as “Actions to Realize E-mobility and Infrastructure.”

Energy Best Mix and Transportation

・Prof. Takeo Kikkawa (Tokyo University of Science) delivered a speech on the direction of Japan’s energy mix revision and the future of transportation fuel. ・In Japan in 2030, the share of next-generation vehicles such as EVs and hybrid vehicles will increase to 50-70% of all new vehicles. ・The following revision was proposed to the 2030 Energy Mix Target approved by the Japanese Cabinet Office in July 2018 (continuation of the 2015 decision). 1. Nuclear power: At present, there are major problems in energy security which is not fully understood by the public. After upgrading to the latest equipment, the target value should be reduced from 20-22% to 15%. 2. Renewable energy: It is the best security option. It should increase from 22-24% to 30% on a market basis. However, infrastructure development such as charging and hydrogen stations is an issue. There are also issues which become cost and trade-off for the existing energy infrastructure. Collaboration between the public sector and the private sector is necessary to solve these issues. 3. Thermal power generation: It is almost unchanged going from 56% to 55%.However, it includes 15% of cogeneration and private power generation. In addition, Japan promotes technology transfer of its coal-fired power generation facilities, which have the highest thermal efficiency in the world, to China, the United States and India among others to reduce CO2 globally. Japan will approach its 26% reduction target of by 2030 as set forth in the Paris Agreement.

Powering Progress Together – Delivering More & Cleaner Energy Solutions

・Paul Bogers (Shell Global Solutions Deutschland) delivered a speech on Shell’s strategy for carbon-free future. – Shell aims to increase the following energy products to approximately 20% of total sales by 2035 and 50% by 2050. The company also aims to achieve its net carbon emission (carbon footprint) reduction target. ♦ Improve operational efficiency of crude oil mining equipment (reduce flare), natural gas shift (LNG increase), renewable energy (wind power generation), biofuel (including filling equipment), E-mobility (charging stations), carbon capture and storage facilities (CCS), natural absorption (natural base carbon offset). ・In addition, the primary energy mix strategy was presented in scenarios up to 2070 for net zero emissions (reducing the carbon footprint). – Significantly increase the ratio of solar and wind power and use CCS for fossil / biofuels. – The scope of the target is not limited to the production process. It is aimed at the entire life cycle, including the process of producing crude oil and natural gas by third-party companies, and the supply / sales process and consumption of oil and gas. – CCS and carbon sinks are used in the process from production to supply and sales, and natural absorption (carbon offset) by forests is used in the consumption process. ・By using ethanol biofuel E20 (2nd generation), which is under development, it is possible to reduce CO2 emissions by 8 to 11% (improvement of combustion efficiency by 3.2%) using Well to Wheel assessment. It will further increase the possibility of high-efficiency engines.

On the Road to Zero Emissions: Potential of the IC Engine Based Powertrain

・Dr. Paul Miles (Sandia National Laboratories) delivered a speech on the future prediction of powertrains based on scientific data. – The latest internal combustion engine technology can reduce CO2 emissions of even engine-based vehicles (ICEV). Comparing the CO2 emissions of EVs and ICEVs in the life cycle, ICEVs are still superior in achieving the 2030 target. – In terms of CO2 emissions, including batteries, from car production to disposal, EVs have higher share compared to ICEVs (HEVs) (EV 40t, HEV 32t as of 2018 in the USA), and it will still an issue in 2050 (EV 24t, ICEV 22t). – Treating EVs and ICEVs of different segments and cruising ranges as being the same is the cause of misunderstandings. They must be compared under the same conditions. – A wide variety of transportation solutions will appear in the future. Depending on different circumstances, some have important significance while others do not. They are based on a wide range of technologies, each optimized for consumer needs and individual functions. – It should be noted that not only CO2 emissions but also exhaust gas, costs and consumer preferences among other factors are different for each market. – All ICEV, BEV and FCEV engineers should focus on developing the cleanest and most efficient vehicles possible. All the technologies will benefit society and the environment. There is no clear winner. – Regulators should make the policy base a sound model with a dynamic / systematic approach. An accurate measurement of the effects of CO2 and local pollutants requires a dynamic / systematic approach. Premature policy enforcement based on over-simplified analysis can lead to negative and unpredictable results. – Towards a clean and sustainable energy future, an extensive STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) education by the government and the media is required, in addition to the development of a workforce that supports higher-level technologies.

Towards Sustainable Transport

・László Varró (International Energy Agency) delivered a speech on sustainable transportation goals in the future, the current state of energy policy, prediction of future scenarios and market issues especially from the perspective of global greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction. ・Improving energy efficiency and using renewable energy are the most important steps going forward. ・Investments in low-carbon energy are mostly wind and solar. ・As of 2030, there will be 130 million EVs worldwide according to the new IEA policy scenario and 250 million units according to the EV30 @ 30 scenario (Scenario for 30% of all new cars to be EV by 2030.). ・However, the increase in EVs requires a charging infrastructure. And although an increase in EVs is a solution, it can also be a cause of problems. ・In addition, the top three sales models in North America are all pickup trucks, and the consumer preference trend toward more heavy vehicles is the obstacle to improving fuel efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions. FCEV system is suitable for these large vehicles.

Keynote Summary by Shuji Kimura

・The keynotes above were summarized by Shuji Kimura (Nissan Motor) as follows. – The number of electric vehicles will increase significantly by 2050, but the number of engine-based vehicles will be also large. – There are various powertrain options, and there is not one answer. It is necessary to consider these combinations for the future. – It was also found that measures to promote electric vehicles such as infrastructure and incentives are necessary to promote technological innovation. – In one of the speeches there was a phrase “The future cannot be predicted,” but the future has the potential for technological innovation toward a zero-emission society. – These are messages that urge younger generations to take on the challenge of technological innovation toward zero emissions.

2019 P, F & L Day 1: Technical Workshop 1 “Actions to Realize Electric Mobility and Infrastructure”

・On the first day, after the opening remarks, four keynote speeches were given which were summarized by Mr. Shuji Kimura (Nissan Motor). After that, the following seven speakers gave a presentation at the first Technical Workshop titled as “Actions to Realize Electric Mobility and Infrastructure.”

Technical Workshop 1

Honda Fuel Cell Vehicle Development Toward the Hydrogen Society

・Takashi Moriya (Honda R&D) delivered a speech on the development history of the fuel cell model Clarity FUEL CELL and Honda’s efforts toward a hydrogen society. – The development of the Clarity FUEL CELL model has highlighted issues such as hydrogen infrastructure and fuel costs. It was also found that relevant laws and regulations are still in the preparatory stage and that international standards are necessary. – Hydrogen can be easily converted into electric power and does not emit CO2 during combustion. Car electrification and shifting to alternative / renewable energy sources are the most powerful strategies for reducing greenhouse gases. ・Honda is developing various technologies based on the concept of “Create, Connect, Consume or CCC” to realize a future hydrogen society. – Honda aims to reduce costs and improve quality control of its future FCEV business through the Clarity FUEL CELL model. – Honda is pursuing synergies between technology and economies of scale through an alliance with GM. The company plans to expand its business in the United States by 2020. – Cooperation in the field of industry, academia and government is required to realize a hydrogen society. Not only technology development but also deregulation and infrastructure improvement are necessary.

Development of PHEV Complying with CO2 Standards

・Nobuo Momose (Mitsubishi Motors) delivered a speech on the importance of PHEV as a solution to bridge environmental regulations and electrification, and superiority of PHEV at this stage in comparison to BEV. – As a strategy for the realization of the 2050 Paris Agreement and 2025/2030 CAFx regulations, the energy recycling function of HEV, PHEV and BEV models is important. – Mitsubishi Motors expects to extend EV range by developing materials with high energy density, and further extend range by using post-lithium-ion batteries with an energy density of 500 Wh / kg as a roadmap for meeting regulations around 2030. – Until around 2030, the company will focus on PHEVs that can overcome the high cost of BEVs (currently only high-end EVs meet various conditions) and charging issues. In addition, the power supply function (V2H) at home is also an advantage. – PHEVs can cover everyday driving in cities in BEV mode. In the future, BEV cruising range is expected to reach 100km (NEDC).

Development of Electric Light Duty Truck

・Lars Schroeter (Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus) delivered a speech on the development background and technological evolution of the electric light truck eCanter. – Mitsubishi Fuso, a subsidiary of Daimler Trucks, will release the new eCanter 2.0 (2nd generation) in 2021. – In 2006, the Canter Eco-Hybrid hybrid vehicle went into mass production. After that, the BEV Canter E-Cell model was developed and preparations for mass production proceeded. The mass-production version of the FUSO eCanter was announced at the International Commercial Vehicle Exhibition IAA 2016 Hannover. In 2017, the eCanter’s first generation the eCanter 1.0 was released. ・The next models the eCanter 2.0 will be equipped with a new E-axle. The design has been revised to improve driving efficiency and vehicle layout. Fuso focused on the following areas. – Lean package for the electric powertrain – Integrated battery arrangement – Improving powertrain efficiency – Eliminating procurement complexity by sharing parts ・It was pointed out that operating costs related to charging vary greatly depending on usage, such as courier, food distributor or repairer, even when using the same BEV small truck. It also strongly depends on the local energy cost structure.

eAxle as the Solution for an Electrified Powertrain

・Martin Krueger (Bosch) delivered a speech on modularization and system integration, which are the focus of E-axle development, especially in the Chinese market which attaches importance to BEVs. – In 2030, BEVs will account for a quarter of all new car sales worldwide (Bosch forecast). That trend is supported by the development of E-axles. – There are two directions regarding the development of electric systems: Optimization standard (module) and system integration (integrated). The direction depends on the difference in requirements of each market (global market and Chinese market). In either case, an E-axle with an integrated inverter, motor and gearbox is the electric powertrain solution. ・The changing aspect of mobility due to electrification encourages a change to the “user experience (UX) first” development policy. Therefore, more flexibility is required on the development and supply side. – There are advantages and disadvantages of each method, modular, semi-integrated or integrated, for OEMs that supply E-axles. – Modules have the advantage of reducing costs by sharing parts and allowing OEMs to receive Tier 1-tested products. – Semi-integration and integration have some advantages such as compactness, but limits maintainability and expandability. ・Bosch offers optimal solutions for BEV, HEV / PHEV and LCV models. In addition, manufacturing takes into consideration life cycle assessment (LCA). – The supplied E-axle has a system efficiency of up to 93%. – It is compatible with an output of 50 to 300kW. High efficiency contributes to extended cruising range and reduced battery costs. A parking lock system (PLS) is also installed.

International Liquefied Hydrogen Supply Chain

・Dr. Motohiko Nishimura (Kawasaki Heavy Industries) delivered a speech on five topics: 1 From low carbon to decarbonized society, 2 efforts to utilize hydrogen, 3 hydrogen supply chain concept, 4 hydrogen infrastructure and 5 ongoing projects. ・Toward a CO2 free society by 2050 as established by COP21 (Paris Agreement), energy generation from natural gas to hydrogen by gas turbine (GT) will play an important role in the stabilization of the future power grid. – Kawasaki Heavy Industries participates in the Hydrogen Council, an initiative of global companies composed of automobile manufacturers and energy companies. ・Kawasaki Heavy Industries also provides hydrogen infrastructure technology from production to use. – The company proposes a low-NOx gas turbine and the world's first liquefied hydrogen transport ship. ・At the Latrobe Valley lignite mine in Australia, work is underway on the concept of a CO2-free hydrogen supply chain (liquefied hydrogen transport, used in Japan) using CCS. – According to the LCA survey of Mizuho Information & Research Institute (Japan), CO2 emissions per 1 Nm3 (kg-CO2e / Nm3-H2) is 0.20 (Well to Tank). It is inferior in comparison to wind / solar-derived hydrogen produced and transported in Japan (liquefied transport) (both 0.16). – The commercialization of liquefied hydrogen sea transport technology is expected around 2030.

Strategy for Powertrains Suitable for Next Generation Mobilities – Automotive and Aircraft

・Prof. Masayoshi Yamamoto (Nagoya University) delivered a speech on the technical details and analysis results of the inverter installed in the HEV system of the Toyota Prius. ・The Prius’ 202V HEV system consists of 1 a main drive output system (PCU) that supplies energy increased to 650V via a boost chopper to a three-stage inverter and drive motor and 2 a system that directly connects to a 3-stage inverter, and connects to an actuator and an electric compressor, and a system that reduces voltage to 12V via a DC-DC converter and sends energy to the 3-stage inverter, actuator and electric power steering system. ・Prius also has a dual cooling system, a 65 °C system centering on the inverter and a 110 °C system centering on the engine. – In the future, it is expected that the dual circuit with the existing Si (silicon) inverter will be replaced with a single-circuit 110 ° C system with an integrated SiC (silicon carbide) inverter. – In the future, Si IGBTs will be replaced by SiC MOS-FETs with fixed capacitors. This lowers the gate threshold voltage from 6.0V to 1.6V. As a result, power density is increased and energy loss is reduced. ・In addition, the inverter design philosophy of the Mirai (FCEV) and Clarity FUEL CELL (FCEV) both equipped with a four-stage inverter were compared. – The comparison involved a high-efficiency GaN (gallium nitride) inverter with a peak efficiency of 99.4% and a maximum-efficiency DC-DC converter with an output density of 3.56W / cm3. It was indicated that the latter, which can be mounted more compactly, is better.

Beyond Li-ion

・Prof. Takeshi Abe (Kyoto University) delivered a speech on next-generation secondary batteries that exceed the performance of lithium-ion secondary batteries based on the history of battery development and the development of a wide range of secondary battery materials. – The nickel metal hydride battery was developed in 1990, and the lithium-ion battery was developed in 1991. Although there is a difference between hydrogen ions and lithium ions, intercalation (interlayer compound) is common. – Due to their superiority in terms of weight energy density and volume energy density, lithium ion batteries have become mainstream over nickel-based batteries. ・Costs, resources, lifespan, safety and other factors will be issues regarding next-generation batteries. ・The following battery materials are popular in the development of secondary batteries around the world. – Lithium metal (weight energy density> 300 Wh / kg) and zinc-nickel (> 200 Wh / kg) have a difficulty of suppressing dendrites of lithium / zinc. – With regard to zinc air (> 500 Wh / kg), it is necessary to add a high performance catalyst for oxygen reduction. Further development is necessary. – Redox shuttles are very inexpensive but have a low energy density. – Although all solid lithium ions are very safe, there is a technical problem in contact between solids. ・Research focuses on capacity (mAh / g) and operating voltage. Examined battery materials are made of various metal materials. It was found that the S block elements in the periodic table such as magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) satisfy high volume energy while being low cost and low toxicity and exceed the limits of lithium ion batteries. – Magnesium metal battery (Mg (FSA) 2 / triglyme) is one of the most suitable electrolytes, but the stable production of chloride is a challenge. – Sodium ion also has high potential, but its melting point is as low as 98 °C, which presents a problem in terms of safety. – Zinc (Zn)-based batteries have problems such as shape change due to generation of dendrites, self-injection, and passivation. Since the 1980s, these issues have been overcome by innovations such as nanotechnology, electrolytes and coatings. Zinc-based batteries have been commercialized. ・Granulate dendritic structure using anion exchange ionomer coating (ZnO technique) (ZnO + 2OH-/ + H2O). It delivers high capacity. – However, the problem is that a stable anion exchange membrane in an alkaline solution is required. ・As for the zinc-air battery, low efficiency of the air electrode, necessity of a new catalyst and the like are posing problems. However, it has fewer issues compared to lithium-air batteries.
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